Barrier, reservoir, target site – those are but some of the possible functions of biological lipid membranes in the complex interplay of drugs with the organism. A detailed knowledge of lipid membranes and of the various modes of drug-membrane interaction is therefore the prerequisite for a better understanding of drug action. Many of today's pharmaceuticals are amphiphilic or catamphiphilic, enabling them to interact with biological membranes. Crucial membrane properties are surveyed and techniques to elucidate drug-membrane interactions presented, including computer-aided predictions. Effects of membrane interaction on drug action and drug distribution are discussed, and numerous examples are given. This unique reference volume builds on the authors' long experience in the study of drug-membrane interaction. Recommended reading for everyone involved in pharmaceutical research.
Following Contemporary Drug Synthesis and The Art of Drug Synthesis (Wiley, 2004 and 2007), two well-received works, is this new book that demystifies the process of modern drug discovery for practitioners and students. An enhanced introduction covers areas such as background, pharmacology, SAR, PK/PD, efficacy, and safety. Focusing on the advantages of process synthesis versus the discovery synthetic route, Modern Drug Synthesis features authoritative coverage by distinguished editors and authors (some chapter authors are the actual inventor of the drug) of twenty different drug molecules.
Cost-effective strategies for designing novel drug delivery systems that target a broad range of disease conditions In vivo imaging has become an important tool for the development of new drug delivery systems, shedding new light on the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, bioavailability, local concentration, and clearance of drug substances for the treatment of human disease, most notably cancer. Written by a team of international experts, this book examines the use of quantitative imaging techniques in designing and evaluating novel drug delivery systems and applications. Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers a full arsenal of tested and proven methods, practices and guidance, enabling readers to overcome the many challenges in creating successful new drug delivery systems. The book begins with an introduction to molecular imaging. Next, it covers: In vivo imaging techniques and quantitative analysis Imaging drugs and drug carriers at the site of action, including low-molecular weight radiopharmaceuticals, peptides and proteins, siRNA, cells, and nanoparticles Applications of imaging techniques in administration routes other than intravenous injection, such as pulmonary and oral delivery Translational research leading to clinical applications Imaging drug delivery in large animal models Clinical applications of imaging techniques to guide drug development and drug delivery Chapters are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience working with imaging techniques for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Presenting state-of-the-technology applications of imaging in preclinical and clinical evaluation of drug delivery systems, Drug Delivery Applications of Noninvasive Imaging offers cost-effective strategies to pharmaceutical researchers and students for developing drug delivery systems that accurately target a broad range of disease conditions.
With a focus on functional relationships between drugs and their targets, this book covers basic and general pharmacology, from a cellular and molecular perspective, with particular attention to the mechanisms of drug action – the fundamental basis for proper clinical use- without neglecting clinical application, toxicology and pharmacokinetics. • Covers cell and molecular pharmacology, bringing together current research on regulation of drug targets, at a level appropriate for advanced undergrad and graduate students • Discusses the relevance of pharmacokinetics and drug development for the clinical application of drugs • Presents material from the perspective of drug targets and interaction, the theoretical basis of drug action analysis, and drug properties • Focuses on structure-function relationships of drug targets – informing about their biochemical and physiologic functions and experimental and clinical pathways for drug discovery and development • Has a companion website that offers a host of resources: short additional chapters about methodology, topics at the forefront of research, all figures and tables from the book, and Power Point slides
Drug discrimination: a practical guide to its contributions to the invention of new chemical entities and evaluations of new or known pharmacological agents Drug discrimination can be described as a «drug detection» procedure that uses a pharmacologically active agent as the subjective stimulus. Although the procedure does require some effort to implement, it can be an extremely important tool for understanding drug action. Whereas medicinal chemists should come to learn the types of information that drug discrimination studies can offer, pharmacologists and psychologists might come to realize how medicinal chemists can apply the types of information that the paradigm routinely provides. Drug Discrimination: Applications to Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Studies provides in-depth analyses of the nature and use of drugs as discriminative stimuli and bridges some of the numerous gaps between medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and psychology. Stressing the practical aspects of drug discrimination, including types of procedures, study design, data, and interpretation, the book details the advantages and limitations of drug discrimination studies versus other pharmacologic evaluations. Practical information from leading researchers in the field addresses specific topics and techniques that are of interest in drug discovery, evaluation, and development. A groundbreaking new guide to the applications of drug discrimination studies for medicinal chemistry and neuroscience, Drug Discrimination is essential for any scientist, researcher, or student whose interests involve the design, development, and/or action of drugs acting at the level of the central nervous system.
Innovative approach to drug design that's more likely to result in an approvable drug product Retrometabolic drug design incorporates two distinct drug design approaches to obtain soft drugs and chemical delivery systems, respectively. Combining fundamentals with practical step-by-step examples, Retrometabolic Drug Design and Targeting gives readers the tools they need to take full advantage of retrometabolic approaches in order to develop safe and effective targeted drug therapies. The authors, both pioneers in the fields of soft drugs and retrometabolic drug design, offer valuable ideas, approaches, and solutions to a broad range of challenges in drug design, optimization, stability, side effects, and toxicity. Retrometabolic Drug Design and Targeting begins with an introductory chapter that explores new drugs and medical progress as well as the challenges of today's drug discovery. Next, it discusses: Basic concepts of the mechanisms of drug action Drug discovery and development processes Retrometabolic drug design Soft drugs Chemical delivery systems Inside the book, readers will find examples from different pharmacological areas detailing the rationale for each drug design. These examples set forth the relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the new therapeutic agents, comparing these properties to those of other compounds used for the same therapeutic purpose. In addition, the authors review dedicated computer programs that are available to support and streamline retrometabolic drug design efforts. Retrometabolic Drug Design and Targeting is recommended for all drug researchers interested in employing this newly tested and proven approach to developing safe and effective drugs.
The science and applied approaches of enzyme inhibition in drug discovery and development Offering a unique approach that includes both the pharmacologic and pharmaco-kinetic aspects of enzyme inhibition, Enzyme Inhibition in Drug Discovery and Development examines the scientific concepts and experimental approaches related to enzyme inhibition as applied in drug discovery and drug development. With chapters written by over fifty leading experts in their fields, Enzyme Inhibition in Drug Discovery and Development fosters a cross-fertilization of pharmacology, drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology by understanding the «good» inhibitions—desirable pharmacological effects—and «bad» inhibitions—drug–drug interactions and toxicity. The book discusses: The drug discovery process, including drug discovery strategy, medicinal chemistry, analytical chemistry, drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and safety biomarker assessment The manipulations of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the negative consequences, such as drug–drug interactions The inhibition of several major drug target pathways, such as the GPCR pathway, the NFkB pathway, and the ion channel pathway Through this focused, single-source reference on the fundamentals of drug discovery and development, researchers in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) will learn and appreciate target biology in drug discovery; discovery biologists and medicinal chemists will also broaden their understanding of DMPK.
Sets the foundation for safer, more effective drug therapies With this book as their guide, readers will discover how to apply our current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of drug transporters to advance their own drug discovery and development efforts. In particular, the book explains how new findings in the field now enable researchers to more accurately predict drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, it sets the foundation for the development of drug therapies that are tailored to an individual patient's genetics. Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters serves as a comprehensive guide to how transporters regulate the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs in the body as well as how an individual's genome affects those processes. The book's eighteen chapters have been authored by a team of leading pioneers in the field. Based on their own laboratory and clinical experience as well as a thorough review of the literature, these authors explore all facets of drug transporter pharmacogenomics, including: Individual drug transporters and transporter families and their clinical significance Principles of altered drug transport in drug–drug interactions, pharmacotherapy, and personalized medicine Emerging new technologies for rapid detection of genetic polymorphisms Clinical aspects of genetic polymorphisms in major drug transporter genes Future research directions of drug transporter pharmacogenomics and the prospect of individualized medicine Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters opens the door to new drug discovery and development breakthroughs leading to safer and more effective customized drug therapies.The book is recommended for pharmaceutical scientists, biochemists, pharmacologists, clinicians, and genetics and genomics researchers.
Specifically geared to personnel in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, this book describes the basics and challenges of oral bioavailability – one of the most significant hurdles in drug discovery and development. • Describes approaches to assess pharmacokinetics and how drug efflux and uptake transporters impact oral bioavailability • Helps readers reduce the failure rate of drug candidates when transitioning from the bench to the clinic during development • Explains how preclinical animal models – used in preclinical testing – and in vitro tools translate to humans, which is an underappreciated and complicated area of drug development • Includes chapters about pharmacokinetic modelling, the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS), and the Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS) • Has tutorials for applying strategies to medicinal chemistry practices of drug discovery/development
Written and edited by experts in the field, this book brings together the current state of the art in phenotypic and rational, target-based approaches to drug discovery against pathogenic protozoa. The chapters focus particularly on virtual compounds and high throughput screening, natural products, computer-assisted drug design, structure-based drug design, mechanism of action identification, and pathway modelling. Furthermore, state-of the art «omics» technologies are described and currently studied enzymatic drug targets are discussed. Mathematical, systems biology-based approaches are introduced as new methodologies for dissecting complex aspects of pathogen survival mechanisms and for target identification. In addition, recently developed anti-parasitic agents targeting particular pathways, which serve as lead compounds for further drug development, are presented.
Providing practical and proven solutions for antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) drug discovery success in oncology, this book helps readers improve the drug safety and therapeutic efficacy of ADCs to kill targeted tumor cells. • Discusses the basics, drug delivery strategies, pharmacology and toxicology, and regulatory approval strategies • Covers the conduct and design of oncology clinical trials and the use of ADCs for tumor imaging • Includes case studies of ADCs in oncology drug development • Features contributions from highly-regarded experts on the frontlines of ADC research and development
Strategize, plan, and execute comprehensive drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics Offering both theory and practical guidance, this book fully explores drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics during the drug development process. It draws together and analyzes all the latest findings and practices in order to present our current understanding of the topic and point the way to new research. Case studies and examples, coupled with expert advice, enable readers to better understand the complex mechanisms of biologic drug-drug interactions. Drug-Drug Interactions for Therapeutic Biologics features contributions from leading international experts in all areas of therapeutic biologics drug development and drug-drug interactions. The authors' contributions reflect a thorough review and analysis of the literature as well as their own firsthand laboratory experience. Coverage includes such essential topics as: Drug-drug interaction risks in combination with small molecules and other biologics Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions In vitro methods for drug-drug interaction assessment and prediction Risk-based strategies for evaluating biologic drug-drug interactions Strategies to minimize drug-drug interaction risk and mitigate toxic interactions Key regulations governing drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics. Drug-Drug Interactions for Therapeutic Biologics is recommended for pharmaceutical and biotechnology scientists, clinical pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, and toxicologists. By enabling these readers to understand how therapeutic biologics may interact with other drugs, the book will help them develop safer, more effective therapeutic biologics.
Emphasizes the integration of major areas of drug discovery and their importance in candidate evaluation It is believed that selecting the «right» drug candidate for development is the key to success. In the last decade, pharmaceutical R&D departments have integrated pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, pharmaceutics, and toxicology into early drug discovery to improve the assessment of potential drug compounds. Now, Evaluation of Drug Candidates for Preclinical Development provides a complete view and understanding of why absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion-toxicology (ADMET) plays a pivotal role in drug discovery and development. Encompassing the three major interrelated areas in which optimization and evaluation of drug developability is most critical—pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, pharmaceutics, and safety assessment—this unique resource encourages integrated thinking in drug discovery. The contributors to this volume: Cover drug transporters, cytochrome P-450 and drug-drug interactions, plasma protein binding, stability, drug formulation, preclinical safety assessment, toxicology, and toxicokinetics Address developability issues that challenge pharma companies, moving beyond isolated experimental results Reveal connections between the key scientific areas that are critical for successful drug discovery and development Inspire forward-thinking strategies and decision-making processes in preclinical evaluation to maximize the potential of drug candidates to progress through development efficiently and meet the increasing demands of the marketplace Evaluation of Drug Candidates for Preclinical Development serves as an introductory reference for those new to the pharmaceutical industry and drug discovery in particular. It is especially well suited for scientists and management teams in small- to mid-sized pharmaceutical companies, as well as academic researchers and graduate students concerned with the practical aspects related to the evaluation of drug developability.
Sets forth the history, state of the science, and future directions of drug discovery Edited by Jie Jack Li and Nobel laureate E. J. Corey, two leading pioneers in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry, this book synthesizes great moments in history, the current state of the science, and future directions of drug discovery into one expertly written and organized work. Exploring all major therapeutic areas, the book introduces readers to all facets and phases of drug discovery, including target selection, biological testing, drug metabolism, and computer-assisted drug design. Drug Discovery features chapters written by an international team of pharmaceutical and medicinal chemists. Contributions are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as the authors' firsthand laboratory experience in drug discovery. The book begins with the history of drug discovery, describing groundbreaking moments in the field. Next, it covers such topics as: Target identification and validation Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics Central nervous system drugs In vitro and in vivo assays Cardiovascular drugs Cancer drugs Each chapter features a case study, helping readers understand how science is put into practice throughout all phases of drug discovery. References at the end of each chapter serve as a gateway to groundbreaking original research studies and reviews in the field. Drug Discovery is ideal for newcomers to medicinal chemistry and drug discovery, providing a comprehensive overview of the field. Veterans in the field will also benefit from the perspectives of leading international experts in all aspects of drug discovery.
The 2nd edition of the textbook is revised and supplemented with new information. Modern considerations concerning the bases of pharmacotherapy of certain diseases are being discussed. Mechanisms of drug action are reviewed according to the latest achievements in fundamental pharmacology. The textbook is designed for medical students.
The how's and why's of successful drug repositioning Drug repositioning, also known as drug reprofiling or repurposing, has become an increasingly important part of the drug development process. This book examines the business, technical, scientific, and operational challenges and opportunities that drug repositioning offers. Readers will learn how to perform the latest experimental and computational methods that support drug repositioning, and detailed case studies throughout the book demonstrate how these methods fit within the context of a comprehensive drug repositioning strategy. Drug Repositioning is divided into three parts: Part 1, Drug Repositioning: Business Case, Strategies, and Operational Considerations, examines the medical and commercial drivers underpinning the quest to reposition existing drugs, guiding readers through the key strategic, technical, operational, and regulatory decisions needed for successful drug repositioning programs. Part 2, Application of Technology Platforms to Uncover New Indications and Repurpose Existing Drugs, sets forth computational-based strategies, tools, and databases that have been designed for repositioning studies, screening approaches, including combinations of existing drugs, and a look at the development of chemically modified analogs of approved agents. Part 3, Academic and Non-Profit Initiatives & the Role of Alliances in the Drug Repositioning Industry, explores current investigations for repositioning drugs to treat rare and neglected diseases, which are frequently overlooked by for-profit pharmaceutical companies due to their lack of commercial return. The book's appendix provides valuable resources for drug repositioning researchers, including information on drug repositioning and reformulation companies, databases, government resources and organizations, regulatory agencies, and drug repositioning initiatives from academia and non-profits. With this book as their guide, students and pharmaceutical researchers can learn how to use drug repositioning techniques to extend the lifespan and applications of existing drugs as well as maximize the return on investment in drug research and development.
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